Chemical bonding and its types
Let us start with the topic of Chemical bonding and its types. This is an important concept of chemistry. Every student should know about the fundamental concept of chemical bonding because as we learn about atoms, molecules, and compounds, we should know that how atoms combine, how molecules combine with other molecules, and how ions combine with other ions. The main question behind this how these combinations take place.
The word is used in chemistry for this combination is chemical bonding.
Definition of chemical bonding-
“Chemical bonding is an attraction force between atoms, molecules, and ions.”
or we can say that chemical bonding is an attraction force that binds two or more than two atoms, molecules, and ions together.
When atoms, molecules, and ions come close together, it does not mean that randomly they will combine with each other. Bonding depends upon the nature and type of chemical entities either atoms, molecules, or ions, etc.
Reason for chemical bonding-
The basic reason for chemical bonding is ‘stability’.
The tendency of atoms, ions, or molecules is to acquire a stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas. So after sharing, partial sharing, and transferring of the electron, they acquire the nearest noble gas configuration and get a stable position. That is the main reason for chemical bonding.
Types of bonding-
Depending upon the nature and type of chemical entities, chemical bonding is divided into mainly three types-
- COVALENT BONDING OR MOLECULAR BONDING
- IONIC BONDING OR ELCTROVALENT BONDING
- CO-ORDINATE BONDING OR DATIVE COVALENT BONDING
Let us understand this bonding one by one.
Covalent bonding (molecular bonding)-
When the sharing of electrons pairs takes place between the atoms, such type of bonding is known as covalent bonding. The sharing electrons are known as shared pair of electrons.
After covalent bonding, the atoms bind together by the Vanderwall force. The extent of the Vanderwall force is weak because of this the atoms can be easily separated by applying less energy. In all inorganic gases like hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, water, and ammonia (H2, N2, Cl2, H2O, NH3) are formed by covalent bonds.
In organic chemistry, we study carbon compounds where carbon and hydrogen bind together by covalent bonds.
For instance- methane, propane, benzene, etc all are hydrocarbon where all C-H bonds are bind together by covalent bonding.
For ex.– hydrogen atoms convert into hydrogen molecule by sharing one electron pair.
Two oxygen atoms convert into oxygen molecules by sharing two electron pairs.
One nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms, share three electron pairs, and form ammonia molecules.
A covalent bond occurs between non-metals having the same electronegativities. Covalent bonds are low in polarity. Covalent bonds have a definite shape. They have low melting and boiling points. At room temperature, a covalent bond is in a gaseous or liquid state.
IMPORTANT– sharing of one-one electron between the atoms, means there is a single bond between the atoms. (sigma bond).
The sharing of two -two electrons means the double bond is present. (one sigma and one pi bond).
The sharing of three-three electrons means the triple bond is present. (one sigma and two pi bond).
2-Ionic bonding or electrovalent bonding-
This bonding is formed after the complete transfer of an electron from the outermost cell of a metal. In this bonding due to ion formation, an ionic compound is formed. Basically, such type of bonding is found in between metal and non-metal. Metals have a tendency to lose electrons whereas non-metals have a tendency to gain an electron.
The attraction force between the ions is known as an electrostatic force which is very strong. Most of the ionic compounds in crystal lattices, in which opposite ions bind together by strong electrostatic force. That is why ionic compound needs higher energy for dissociation into their respective ions.
3-Co-ordinate bond (dative covalent bond)-
In this bonding sharing of electron takes place but the shared electrons come from the same atom. It is also known as a dative covalent bond. This type of bonding involves the bonding between the metal and ligands which leads to the formation of coordinate compounds.
In this bonding only one atom is responsible for the shared electron, that atom is known is donar.
- The other atom which is going to receive this shared electron is known as the acceptor.
- The bond is represented with an arrow →, pointing towards the acceptor from the donor atom.
- We can offenly see this bonding in coordinate compounds or complex compound formation.
- after coordinate bonding, the compounds get stability.
Properties Of Coordinate Compounds
- These compounds have lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.
- Some of the coordinate compounds exhibit isomerism.
- The sharing of electrons takes place in a definite direction, hence, it is a directional bond.
- Coordinate bond is weaker than Ionic bonding.
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